The Republic of Kareliyah is located in the north-west of Russia and is part of the North-West Federal District of the Russian Federation. On 8 June 1920, the Soviet Government adopted a decree on the establishment of the Karel Autonomous Region, which was called the Karel Labour Commune. In 1923, it was transformed into the Karel Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and, in 1940, to the Carelo-Finsk SSR. During the period 1956-1991, the Karel ACSR, since 13 November 1991, the Republic of Karelia.
The area of Kareliyah is 180, 5,000 square kilometres (1,0 per cent of the territory of the Russian Federation). The territory of the Republic is 660 km long from the north to the south. From the west to the east, there are 424 km of length in the Kami latitude.
In the west, Kareliyah is bordering Finland, in the south, with the Leningrad and Wormod regions, in the north with Murmansk, in the east with the Arkhangel region. In the north-east of the Republic, the White Sea is being wasted. The western border of Karelia coincides with the State border of the Russian Federation and Finland and has a length of 798 km. The distance from the administrative centre of the Republic, Petrosavodska to Moscow, is 925 km. to St. Petersburg, 401 km. to Murmansk, 1,050 km. to Helsinki, 703 km.
As at 1 January 2014, the permanent population of the Republic of Kareliyah was 634, 4,000, the proportion of the urban population was 79.2 per cent. In 2013, the proportion of the population under working age was 16.7 per cent, working age 59.2 per cent, over working age 24.1 per cent. The population density of the Republic is 3, 5 persons per square kilometre.
The number of unemployed citizens registered with the public employment service (at the end of 2013) was 7,0 thousand. The registered unemployment rate in 2013 was 1.9 per cent for the economically active population (2012: 2.1 per cent).